Lables: Ethnic Groups, Kadai Group, Laha ethnic group
Proper names: Laha, Kla Phlao.
Other names: Xa Cha, Xa Bung, Xa Khao, Xa Tau Nha, Xa Poong, Xa Uong, Bu Ha, Pua.
Local groups: Dry Laha (Khla Phlao), Water Laha (Laha ung).
Population: 1.400 people (1999 census).
Language: The speaking language belongs for the Kadai language group (Tai- Kadai language family)
History: The Laha were early inhabitants of the nation's northwest spot. According to some ancient documents in Thai language, around the 11th-12th century, when consist of Thai chosen this region, they encountered the ancestors of the existing Laha. As this, when conducting community worshiping rites, the Thai still organize the 'white water buffalo' feast to worship a spirit called Am Poi - a famous Laha leader dating to the 11th century.
Production activities: The Laha have did start to practice irrigated rice farming, but they continue to rely on the slash and burn technique, hunting, along with the gathering of fruit. Their cultivation style is very simple; they use a pointed digging stick and a paring silverware. The main crops are sticky rice, corn, beans, and organic. In the past, Laha women couldn't know how to weave. Later, they learned weaving throughout the Thai, and started making their own clothes.
Diet: The main promises food is steamed sticky rice, though they have started eating regular grain. Other foods are salted, grilled, roasted, or 'dried to preserve them. Women chew betel nuts.
Clothing: Brand new memoir times, men like put on their long hair wrapped in a bun; today, however, only old men as well as the shaman still keep on the top of this unique. Women blacken their teeth, and put on a Black Thai beauty. In some areas, they wear an apron outside their skirt, or typically put it around their shoulders as soon as the weather is cold. Single usually women wear their hair in a bun around back for the head, while married women follow a Black Thai style of wearing the bun in addition to of the head.
However, in a number areas, aged old alike wear their hair in a bun the top front of the head. In areas with heavy White Thai influence, women whether married or single - just roll up their hair or invest a bun on your back of their heads.
Housing: They live in stilt houses of two styles: Your first are temporary houses, inhabited from someone to three years by those who are nomadic and practice slash and burn agriculture. This type of residence is distinguished by long oval roof that resembles the jaw for the pig. Permanent houses are for people who live an exercise-free lifestyle, or those who are semi-nomadic. This kind of house has a curved round roof at this point shaped like a tortoise shell, and is comparable to people the Black Thai.
There are two distinct areas within a Laha house: a living room area that occupies a couple of half to two-thirds in the whole house; and the rest that is living space for household inhabitants and guests. Dividing the guest quarters and also the living quarters is a column, which generally offers a rice wine jar is tied onto it.
Transportation: The Laha use baskets, water buffaloes, and horses.
Social organization: The Laha live in villages. Brand new memoir times, your head of a village was called Khun cai. His two assistants, who were popularly elected, were called Khun tang and Khun teng.
The Laha have small, patriarchal families. Children bear the father's name, and wives adopt the name of their husbands. Daughters are prohibited from inheriting property their particular parents.
Marriage: The Laha practice monogamy. Marriage is getting a bit commercial, displayed the actual amount of greenbacks called nang kha pom (price per each person's head), the fact that groom must pay towards the bride's father and mother. Moreover, the groom must move around his wife's family. On the other hand, young ladies and men have the freedom to date and discover their partners without the parents' disturbance. After a period from 3 to 5 days of getting acquaintance with every other, absolutely nothing as they man asks his parents to visit his girlfriend's house to propose a wedding. The boy's family will give betel nuts to the girl's family, in exchange for a shirt among the bride, that's used for fortune telling purposes. The betel nut will be mailed to all on the girl's relatives in order to ask their opinions on her marriage. People that do not approve of computer will return the betel nuts into the bride. In five days, if the girl's parents don't a few betel nuts back to the groom's family, it means that they accept the proposal, and in 10 days the groom will move to his wife's house, and work on her parents. Not until this period is over, can wedding party be arranged, called thu ma phu (meals and wine). After the wedding, the bride will utilized to her husband's family. She will adopt her husband's name, and will be unable to back again to to her parents' house, even when her husband dies. Whenever a widow remarriages, her new husband could have to bring some certain gift, called thu coi poong to her former parents-in-law's family, but in order to not her dad. A widow, even after remarriage, still believes right after she dies, her spirit will go back to her ex- husband with whom she had the thu ma phu wedding. Therefore, in some places, if parents die without having held that ceremony, their kids will end up being do it for them, so that the parents can live together in heaven.
Funerals: The Laha don't cremate corpses like the black Thai; rather, they bury their dead. The dead is wrapped in cloth, or bamboo mat, and then carried into the gravesite. Only then it is put best suited coffin and buried. If ever the deceased would be a father, his son would use a knife to destroy the father's altar to chase away the grandfather's ghost; only then can he start to worship his very own father's cardiovascular. If the deceased was a mother, then her son uses the knife to tap on the mother's sleeping site; this procedure chases away his grandmother's ghost, and allows the son start worshiping his mother's spirit. The deceased is try out the same direction as you move the house's transverse beam. If for example the deceased would be a father, he's going to be placed under the first (main) beam; if the deceased any mother, she'll be placed under the second beam. If for example the deceased were the eldest son, though be placed under the third beam. When carrying the deceased on the burial site, a father will be brought by the door for this guest's groups. If the deceased is often a mother, your beloved destroys the front wall to lug her of the house. Should the deceased can be a son, they could be introduced by the entrance where water is built up.
On the grave, the Laha construct a little house, about two meters tall, with two roofs. As well as the some with the thatch along at the roof in your own home for the grave's roof. If the deceased would be a father, use the thatch of the sleeping place, where their heads lies. Should the deceased would be a mother, certainly they use the thatch of the sleeping place where the legs ground. If the deceased was a son, they use the thatch from the patio where they dry rice. Should the deceased would be a daughter, downloaded the thatch of learn what where water is kept tucked away. They put all necessary things for living into the grave house, such as rice baskets, tobacco pipe, clothes, bed covers, a mat. When' coming for you to the house from the funeral, the family usually stirs up the rice mortar to keep ghosts from coming to be able to harm a family.
Beliefs: The Laha worships their ancestors in accommodation called hong, like the Thai. The ritual specialist (mot lao) calls back spirits, and drives away ghosts. Either once a year, or once every few years, mot lao could have a ritual to worship his ancestors, and other Gods. Of these Gods, the most frightening ones are the Linga God and the Sword God; Therefore, in each mot lao's, altar, your current always effigies of a linga, a sword, properly shield.
It can be a taboo to have green vegetable, green leaves, or anything green, too as fresh meat in through the doorway of the living quarters. These items have to be created through the of the guest area. When pots and pans they fit on the oven, the handles in order to be lie in the same direction as that used by people once they sleep. Moment has come also a taboo for getting the handle toward the doorway door, because that is the direction dead people is about before burying. However, somebody dies, most of these taboos are given up, and things are carried out other way around. Calendar: The Laha use Thai calendar.
Education: In former times, the Laha studied Thai language.
Artistic activities: The Laha sings and writes poems very well in Thai language. Their two special dances always be linga dance and the sword break.